Frankly, I'm not sure why he's stumped by them, but am interested to hear others opinions. I don't have any facts to base most of my answers on, but here are my opinions based on common sense and my gut feelings from knowing how search engines have worked for 15 years:
Some rumors have been passing around the SEO world that QDD, Google's "diversity" algorithm that's intended to show more of a variety of different kinds of content in page one of the SERPs, gives a rankings boost to negative focused content, making it easier to rank for a company/brand/person's name if you "talk smack" about them. True or false?
I wasn't familiar with the term "QDD" but with the explanation there as to what it means, yep, I definitely believe this one is true. I have seen it way too many times for it to be a coincidence.
Can't say as I pay enough attention to this area to have an opinion on this one.
Haven't tested this other than to see if they were doing 301 redirects. Since the ones I checked were, then yes, of course the search engines are following those links. That's what they do with 301 redirects.
Not sure about this one, but it did seem to be working when I looked at it when it was first mentioned. I don't think it's doing anything now, however. I wish I could test it some more, as I'm wondering if any subdomain made up name may have perhaps done the same thing as using hyves as the subdomain.
Obviously can't say for sure, but it seems to me this goes without saying. Why would they not?
As the number one result for SEO company show (thanks to Rand outing them), yes, low quality links most definitely pass anchor text.
So how 'bout the rest of you. How would you answer?